ISSN 1612-3352

Editors in Chief

Prof. Dr. Claus F. Claussen, Neurootological Research Institute of the Research Society for Smell, Taste, Hearing and Equilibrium Disorders at Bad Kissingen (4-G-F). Bad Kissingen, Germany.
Dr. med. Julia M. Bergmann,
Dr. med. Guillermo O. Bertora,
Otoneuroophthalmological Neurophysiology,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Production Managers

Dr. med. Julia M. Bergmann,
Dr. med. Guillermo O. Bertora,
Otoneuroophthalmological Neurophysiology,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Associated Editors

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The achievment of correct erect standing position, both in static and in dynamic conditions, require continuos adaptation of couterreaction of antigravitary muscles to the gravity force, in order to stabilize head position and to mantain erect position itself. Maintaining of upright position of the body is acquired via a continual to and fro movement of the Center of Gravity (CoG) around the point of mass equilibrium. This movement is called “postural sway”. It is achieved in a reflective manner by the mean of the so-called vestibulo-spinal-reflexes (VSR). The control of correct head position is possible through the activation of the neck muscles by the mean of a part of the VSR (the so called vestibulo-collic reflex, VCR) and the the cervico-spinal reflexes (CSR):
bending the neck and turning the head relative to the body evokes reflexes in the limb muscles either in decerebrate cats or in human beings. These reflexes interact with vestibulo-spinal reflexes (VSR) controlling extensory muscles tone. Vestibular and proprioceptive inputs are integrated either in Deiters vestibular nucleus or in reticular formation. Proprioceptive inputs are generated in muscle spindles of the neck muscles and they are partially responsible for the elicitation of CS reflexes.
The integration of the neck structures in balance performance is, however, more complex than a mere sensory contribution. The position of the head is governed by the neck muscles and the first guiding input is the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR). The cervical information by neck proprioceptors serves as a feed-back information. In this way a cervico-collic Reflex (CCR) is generated.
The sensory input is produced by proprioceptors present in several tissues of the neck. The resulting reflexes are cervico-ocular reflex (COR) and cervico-spinal reflex (CSR). The task of the neck-muscles consistes in stabilizing the position of the head relative to the trunk and in moving the head. This has to be executed, each time subserving the goal of balance, i.e. stabilizing the visual field and maintaining the upright position. The neck muscles are controlled by the balance function via the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR) which is a part of the vestibulo-spinal reflexes (VSR).
Vestibular impairment induces abnormal muscles responses in the neck, particularly, and along the antigravitary chain with abnormal static and dynamic equilibrium disorders
The classic view of skeletal muscles, including antigravitary muscles, too, is that forse is generated within its muscle fibers and then directly transmitted in-series, usually via tendon according th so-called myotendonous force transmission.
In contrast, recent results suggest that muscles are mechanically and neurophysiologically connected to sorrounding structures via connective tissue linkages (so-called epimuscolar myofascial pathways).



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